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Declaration of the Shia of Iraq (2)


Background note


1. The genesis of the problem

2. Who are the Shia?

3. The Shia and the modern Iraqi state

4. The authorities’ objectives in pursuing sectarianism

5. The nature of the Shia opposition

6. The politics of sectarianism

7. Sectarian differences and sectarian discrimination

8. The Shia of Iraq and national unity

9. What do the Shia want?


Annex1 References

Annex 2 List of signatories

Annex 3 Comments on the Declaration


It is essential that all the elements of Iraq’s political spectrum, as well as the representatives of Iraq’s varied communities, become involved in the process of finding a way out of the terrible situation that Iraq finds itself in now and which threaten its very survival. All these groups must participate in the process of change and the design of a new Iraqi state so that all have a stake in the outcome and could feel themselves true and equal partners in the country.

The Iraqi crisis has to be tackled at all its levels-political, through the elimination of dictatorship; sectarian, through the abolition of sectarian discrimination; and ethnic, through the elimination of ethnic and national preference. Furthermore, it would be necessary to consider policies and programmes that would provide redress to the many aggrieved groups in the country, and to establish a vision of Iraq’s future in which all would share. Any shortfall from this objective by adopting one perspective over another on the grounds of a gradualism that postpones the tackling of these issues to some indeterminate date in the future, is a recipe for further suffering and possibly disaster. 

Constitutional guarantees and rights must be afforded to all of Iraq’s groups and communities, as well as the means to defend or enforce them. This must be the minimum requirement for rebuilding the Iraqi state on a new basis. The order of priorities in this declaration have been ranked in a methodical manner, and the sequential adoption of the policies that underpin needed change are based on the principle of their voluntary adoption through information dissemination and persuasion rather than their imposition by force or fiat.

The adoption of the constituent components of Iraq’s society of the elements of this declaration is important, not least for the reason that each should feel that they have accepted the main sources of grievance and redress of the other groups, and that they have all participated equally in the fashioning of a new Iraqi order.

Annex 1

The following are the main studies and works that have tackled the Iraqi Shia problem.

1. The speech given by Sayyid Baqir al-Hakim in Tehran under the title: "Shia consciousness in Iraq", dated 1402 AH

2. The book " The Crisis of Power in Iraq", by Abd el-Karim al-Uzri

3. The book "The Shia and the Nationalist State", by Hassan al-Alawi

4. The booklet "What do the Shia of Iraq want", by Sayyid Muhammed Bahr al-Uloom

5. The seminar on " Facets of the Shia crisis in Iraq" that was held under the auspices of Sayyid Abd el-Majid al-Khoei in the Khoei Foundation, London, 2000.

6. The book "The Shia issue in Iraq and the Husseini rites", by Ibrahim Hamoudi

7. The book "The present circumstances of the Shia of Iraq", by Sayyid Muhammed al-Hayderi

8. The book " The New World Order and the Shia of Iraq", by Adel Abd el-Mahdi

9. The book " An assessment of the fighting capabilities of the Shia of Iraq" by Mahdi Abd el-Mahdi

10. The booklet "The Shia Pronouncement" by Ghalib Shabandar

Annex 2

A partial list of signatories to the document follows:

Abdul Karim, Hayfaa (Mrs.)

The Continuous Picket, London

Abdul Mahdi, Adil 

Researcher, Writer, France

Abdul Razzaq, Salah 

University Lecturer, Netherlands

Abu Qlaam, Khalil Mohammed Hussein


Abu Qlaam, Hadi 

Bank Manager

Abu Tebeekh, Abbas (Dr.)

University Lecturer, USA

Ahmed, Nesh’at

Islamic Union of Iraqi Turkumen

Al Addad, Ali (Dr.) 

Consultant to NGOs, Geneva

Al Adnani, Mohammed Sadiq (Professor)

University Professor in Medicine and Poet

Al Adwan, Ritha

Medical Analysis CA

Al Ali, Abdul Razzaq

Organisation of Faily Kurds

Al Ammar, Ali (Dr.)

Consultant in Medicine, CA

Al Aryan, Ali

Ex Political Prisoner, Human Rights Activist

Al Askarl, Sami

Islamic Daw’a Party

Al Attar, Mohammed Falah ( Shiekh)

Orator and Rhetorician (Islamic Media Center, CA)

Al Atiya, Firial (Mrs.)

Activist on Women Issues

Al Atiya, Jihad


Al Atiya, Malallah (Sheikh)

Supervisor, Imam Ali Islamic Centre, Cardiff

Al Awad, Talib


Al Badran, Mohammed

Human Rights Activist, Nashfield, Tennessee

Al Badran, Ramadhan,

Human Rights Activist, CA

Al Basri, Abdul Aziz

Lecturer in Arabic Language and Literature

Al Basri, Kamal (Dr.)


Al Basri, Khairallah (Sheikh)

Scholar of Religion

Al Bassam, Mehdi Salih (Dr.)

Cardiologist, USA

Al Bustani, Abbas (Dr.)

University Lecturer, Researcher, Publisher

Al Bayati, Walid Saeed (Dr.)

Writer, Researcher in Islamic & Arabic Civilisation

Al Chalabi, Hassan, Professor

University Chancellor & Professor of Law, Lebanon

Al Dalli, Hadi (Dr.)


Al Eshayqir, Ibrahim (Dr.)


Al Fadhil, Munthir (Dr.)

Visiting Associate Professor at the College of Law ICIS

Al Haeiri, Jawad


Al Hakkak, Hassan (Dr.)

University Lecturer

Al Hakim, Abdul Hadi (Dr.)

University Lecturer, Academic Researcher

Al Hakim, Sahib (Dr.)

Rapporteur on Human Rights in Iraq

Al Hakim, Salih

Religious Scholar, Denmark

Al Hassan, Khalid,


Al Hasani, Ali (Dr.)

Islamic Thinker, Writer

Al Hasani, Saleem (Dr.)

Writer and Journalist

Al Hashimi, Mahmood (Dr.)

Consultant Ophthalmologist

Al Hebib, Hussein

Artist, Writer

Al Hilali, Mahir Mohammed Ali (Dr.)

Consultant in Haematology & Oncology

Al Hillo, Muthar (Syed)

Islamic Researcher

Al Hussieni, Abbas (Dr.)

University lecturer, Westminister University

Al Hussieni, Ali (Dr.)

Consultant Physician

Al Hussieni, Bassam

Engineer, Iraqi Community, CA

Al Hussieni, Riadh

Iraqi Media

Al Hussieni, Hisham (Sheikh)

Supervisor, Karbala, Islamic Centre, USA

Al Ibadi, Imad

Engineer, Activist on Social Issues

Al Idi, Hassan (Dr.)

University Lecturer

Al Imara, Ghani Nassir

Tribal Chief

Al Jaddoe’e, Abbas Hatem (Dr.)

Dental Surgery

Al Jubori, Najat Hussien (Mrs.)


Al Kadhimi, Mustafa


Al Khairallah, Jeleel

Iraqi Islamic Cadres

?Al Khelili, Ibtisam, ( Mrs.)

European Women Union

Al Kheteeb, Fadhil (Sheikh)

Orator and Rhetorician

Al Kheteeb, Hussien

Human Rights Activist, Netherlands

Al Kheteeb, ??Abdul Majeed (Dr.)

Consultant Paediatrician

Al Khateeb, Muhie Al Deen


Al Kheteeb, Salah (Dr.)

Islamic Organisation of Human Rights, Geneva

Al Khirsan, Abdul Ameer (Dr.)

Ph.D., adviser on Travel and Tourism

Al Kilidar, Adnan (Dr.)

Dental Practitioner

Al Kishmiri, Mohammed Baqir ( Sayed)

Orator and Rhetorician

Al Mahmood, Qasim (Dr.)

University Lecturer

Al Mehdawi, Ali (Dr.)

University Lecturer

Al Merzuq, Qais (Dr.)

Communication Engineer CA

Al Manshed, Takleef Mohammed

Al Fodhool and Aal Ghizzi Tribes

Al Mize’l, Talib Harbi

Bani Rikkab Tribes

Al Mizeil, Ismael Harbi

Bani Rikkab Tribes

Al Mueeny, Salah Alattar


Al Musawi, Abbass Kereem Nie’ma

(Colonel) Pharmacist, 1991 Uprising Committee

Al Musawi, Abdul Hussein Ubaies (Colonel)

Figure 1991 March Uprising

Al Musawi, Jawad Kadhum


Al Musawi, Isra’a Abbas (Ms.)

Management, CA

Al Musawi, Mohammed (Syed)

Secretary General of World Ahlul Bayt Islamic League

Al Musawi, Mustafa Zaidan

Iraqi Islamic Accord

Al Musawi, Sabria Mahdi(Mrs.)

Human rights Activist

Al Musawi, Zahra’a Niema (Mrs.)

Society Activist

Al Qizwini, Baha’a (Dr.)

Ph.D. Bio statistics

Al Qizwini, Ibtihal (Dr.) Mrs.


Al Rezeen, Abdul Rahman


Al Rikabi, A’adil Khidhir A’al Fashakh

Politics Activist, Washington, Seattle

Al Rikabi, Hussein Anbar (Dr.)

Consultant in Medicine

Al Rikabi, Hussein


Al Rikabi, Fatima (Mrs.)


Al Risan, Jawad Kadhum

Chief, Hatcham Tribe, living in Holland

Al Rubaei, Abdul Kereem

Journalist, USA

Al Rubaei, Adnan Abdul Ameer

Engineer, Businessman

Al Rubaei, Ahmed

Management and Economy College, CA

Al Rubaie, Ameer Jabir (Dr.)

Ph.D. University Lecturer, Netherlands

Al Rubaie, Mowaffak (Dr.)


Al Sa’yadi, Hassan Hadi (Dr.)

University Lecturer

Al Sabah, Adul Ameer Ubaies

Major General, Diplomat

Al Sabe’e, Taha (Dr.)

University Lecturer in Economics CA

Al Sadin, Ameen (Dr.)

Consultant Physician

Al Sadr, Ali Hussein


Al Sadr, Mohammed (Dr.)

Iraqi Democratic Platform, Ireland

Al Salihi, Mohammed

Management and Economics College CA

Al Sari, Majid

Writer, Sweden

Al Sedaidi, Kholood (Dr.) Mrs.

Dental Practitioner

Al Sehel, Hazim Baqir

Member of Bani Timim Tribe, living in Holland

Al Sehel, Sefeya Sheikh Talib Mrs.

Independent politician

Al Sehlani, Fadhil (Sheikh)

Spokesman for Muslim Scholars in USA

Al Shabender, Ghalib

Philosopher and Writer, Malmo, Sweden

Al Shaboot, Muhsin (Dr.)


Al Shabut, Nebeel (Dr.)

Consultant Surgeon

Al Shabut, Neda (Dr.)

University Lecturer

Al Shabut, Nedeem Muhsin

Computer Engineer

Al Shar’a Abdul Muneim Salih

Engineer, CA

Al Shar’a, Azher Sachet

Contractor CA

Al Shar’a, Hassan Ibrahim,


Al Shar’a Hayder

Businessman CA

Al Shar’a Sachet Sayed Isssa

Leader in 1991 Uprising

Al Sharr’a Salih Sayed Mohammed

Tribes Chief, 1991 Uprising Middle Euphrates

Al Shar’a Sami,

Contractor CA

Al Shami, Hussein (Syed)

Dar Al Islam Foundation Supervisor

Al Shatree, Aqeel

Electric Engineer CA

Al Shehristani, Hussein

Nuclear Scientist

Al Shekerchi, Dhia’a (Sheikh)

General Secretary of Darul Huda. Hamburg

Al Shethir, Nasir (Dr.)

Former Judge

Al Shibib, Hashim

Diplomat, Politician

Al Shibibi, Arwa Mohammed Ridha (Mrs.)

Poet, Writer

Al Shibibi, Hala Sadiq (Ms.)


Al Shibibi, Sadiq Baqir


Al Shimmeri, Mohammed


Al Swaij, Mohammed Zeki ( Syed)

Supervisor, Islamic Propagation Foundation, USA

Al Tabatabei, Makki Hussein(Dr.)

Consultant Paediatrician

Al Tae’e, Aziz

Chief, American Iraqi Council, Philadelphia

Al Timimi, Imad Muhammed

Businessman CA

Al Timimi, Sabah (Dr.)


Al Tuiraihi, Mohamed Saeid

Historian, Researcher,

Al Turaihi, Mohammed Jawad (Sheikh)

Former Judge

Al Turaihi, Muneer (Sheikh)

Scholar of Religion

Al Uzri, Abdul Kereem

Writer, Former Cabinet Minister

Al Zubaidi, Nejim

Former Brigadier, Republican Guards

Al Yasiri, Tawfeeq (Major General)

Iraqi National Accord

Alatiya, Jeleel (Dr.)

Historian, Writer, living in France

Alhakim, Bayan (Dr.)

Interfaith International (UN), Geneva

Alhillo, A’mir ( Syed)

Head, Ahlul Bayt Islamic Centre, Vienna

Ali, Faiq Sheikh

Lawyer, Writer

Allawi, Ali (Dr)

Businessman, SAM, Oxford University

Allawi, Ja’afer (Dr.)

Consultant in Endocrinology

Allawi, Ne’am (Mrs.)

World Wide Welfare Organisation

Allawi, Sabah Hashim

Former Ambassador with the United Nations

Allawi, Tawfeeq


Alwash, Azzam (Dr.)

PhD, Iraqi Forum For Democracy, USA

Bahroolom, Mohammed Zeki (Syed)

Islamic Scholar

Bhaya, Musa(Dr.)

Dental Surgeon USA

Bilal, Salah Aal (Sheikh)

Religious Scholar

Bilal, Usama (Dr.)

Consultant Psychiatrist

Derweesh, Aliya (Dr.)

University Lecturer in Engineering CA

Derweesh, Faruq (Dr.)

University Lecturer CA

Eshaiker, Muhannad

Architect, Iraqi Forum for Democracy

Ewadh, A’adil (Dr.)

Physician, Nebraska

Fliaeh, Salam

Car Merchant CA

Hannon, Mohammed Shannan

Human Rights Activist, Washington DC

Hashim, Ali

MSc. Businessman, USA

Hussein, Ibrahim Mohammed (Dr.)


Hussein, Nawal Sheikh (Mrs.)

Activist on Women Issues

Huwedi, Abdul Ameer (Dr.)

Scholar of Religion

Ibrahim, Khalid

Front Line Organisation, Ireland

Jabr, Sa’ad Salih

Head, Free Iraqi Council

Kashif Alghita, Abdul Raheem

Politician, Switzerland

Kashif Alghita’a, Fadhil Abbas (Dr.)

Consultant Physician

Mahdi, Manal, ( Ms.)

Engineer, USA

Maksud, Ghalib

Consultant in Law, USA

Maso’od, Hassan ( Sheikh)

Secretary General Ahlul Bayt Association, Glasgow

Meshkoor, Fekhree (Dr.)

Consultant Physician

?Mustafa, Abdul Rahman

Merchant, San Diego

Shnyien, Naif ( Dr.)

Accident and Emergency

Shubber, Kadhum Syed Qasim

Businessman, Spain

Shubber, Kadum Jawad (Professor)

University Lecturer: Management &Finance

Simsim, Radhi

Politician, San Francisco

Tu’ma Mohammed

Businessman, Nebraska

Witwit, Ja’afer

One of the Leaders of the 1991 Uprising

Witwit, Qaisar

Activist in the Iraqi Opposition

Witwit, Zaid

One of the leaders of 1991 Uprising, living in Holland

Yousif, Maha (Dr.)

Dental Surgeon USA

Yousif, Mazin (Dr.)

PhD, Medicine

Yousif, Mayyada (Dr.)

Physician USA

Zaini, Mohammed Ali (Dr.)


Annex 3

The following are extracts drawn from letters by leading Scholars and Jurisprudents, commenting on and supporting the Declaration of the Shia of Iraq.

Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Kadhim al-Haeri

" I have received your letters regarding the extent of the effort needed to retrieve the rights of Iraq’s Shia, and my reply follows…

Firstly: The rights of the Shia have been violated for a long time and up to our period today. This has been caused not by our Sunni brothers but as a result of tyrannical governments. We do not ask the minority sect in Iraq, the Sunnis, to grant rights to the Shia, the majority, for the scholars of Islam have all agreed that Islam does not differentiate between the rights of Muslims, irrespective of their sects.

Each member of a sect recognises and respects the particularities of its own sect, and we as followers of the Household of the Prophet recognise the limits of our sect and respect them.

Secondly: We demand that all tyrannical governments in Iraq cease from trampling the rights of the majority Shia; as we demand from them also that they cease to trample the rights of the minority Sunnis .We say to these governments; We are all Muslims and we enjoy equality of rights under the mantle of Islam.

Thirdly: It is essential that the rights of national minorities such as our brothers the Kurds and Turcomen and others be respected in parallel to the respect of the rights of the Arabs. This is an issue that has no bearing on the issue of sectarian discrimination. And from this perspective, the division of the Iraqi nation into Kurds, Shia and Sunnis is not accurate and mixes between the ethnic issue and the sectarian issue. It would appear to us that this is a deliberate ploy on the part of the international hegemonistic powers.

Fourthly: We demand from any non-Islamic government in Iraq to relinquish power and to allow the Iraqi nation to choose for itself the type of government it wants, which we are sure is an Islamic government."

His Eminence Sayyid Murtadha al-Askari, Dean, College of the Principles of Religion

" Recognising what the Shia of the Household of the Prophet have achieved in Iraq, we affirm the following:

Firstly; That the Shia of the Household of the Prophet are the majority of Iraq’s population.

Secondly: They struggled, under the guidance of their scholars, for the independence of Iraq.

Thirdly: Following the Second World War they confronted, culturally, the spread of communism .The treacherous Baath party that is in control of Iraq has murdered their scholars including the leading luminaries the martyrs Sayyid Muhammed Baqir al-Sadr, Sayyid Muhammed al-Sadr, and the lady martyr Bint-ul-Huda."

His Eminence Sayyid Muhammed Bahr-ul-Uloom

"… And the Iraqi Shia, being the majority in the country, have been the regular victims of these regimes, for whenever dictatorship increased in intensity, it was accompanied with an equal intensification of sectarian discrimination. The Saddamist dictatorship pushed further the limits of sectarianism by marginalizing the Shia religious authorities, and the liquidation of Shia scholars and notables and the destruction of their holy shrines and study circles. This was particularly 1991evidenced by the dictatorship raising the slogan of " No more Shia as of today!" following the popular uprising.         

We believe that the struggle against the dictatorship must continue to remove tyranny and to replace it with the democratic alternative, and to remove political sectarianism. This will return to the Shia of Iraq their main role in rebuilding the state and realising the hopes of the people.

… And we must encourage all perspectives and objective analyses that are based on the recognition of the multiple particularities and identity of Iraq. We support vigorously all efforts that lead to the elaboration of a national programme that is commensurate with our people’s desire to build a civil society and a country that is based on law, in which the rights of the majority and minority are equally considered. This is the project of the Shia of Iraq, who are the backbone of the country.

We encourage all steps that contribute to this great goal and to lift the injustice from the Shia of Iraq, to confirm their rights, and to acknowledge the oppression that has been afflicted on them. And to take all the necessary measures to remove this burden and erase the traces of oppression."

His Eminence Sayyid Hussein al-Sadr

" And if we start from the base of our love for the unitary and united Iraq, and our concern for its stability and future prosperity, then it is incumbent on us to point out the historic injustice that has been experienced by the Shia of Iraq over many generations, and which has placed the Shii Iraqi citizen between the hammer of sectarianism and the anvil of social and political oppression.

Today, we are witnessing the signs of the removal of the butcher and his dictatorial regime that has oppressed our people and exposed them to the worst forms of deprivation and misery. And it time that we raise our voices loudly to demand that the oppression against the Shia be placed on the top of all the political projects and plans that are being devised for the coming period.

We are in favour of all sincere plans that strive to promote political equity in a pluralistic, parliamentary and constitutional Iraq; and we support all efforts to lift Iraq and its oppressed Shia population."

Islamic Daw’a Party

To be translated

His Eminence Shaikh Mohammed Baqir Al Nasseri

To be translated 


In the documents section


In the Iraq section

Related pages


Iraq under Saddam Hussein

The fall of Saddam Hussein






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Last revised on 04 August, 2015