General Principles and Reforms:
I. General Principles
A. Lebanon is a sovereign, free,
and independent country and a final homeland for all its citizens.
B. Lebanon is Arab in belonging
and identity. It is an active and founding member of the Arab
League and is committed to the league's charter. It is an active
and founding member of the United Nations Organization and is
committed to its charters. Lebanon is a member of the nonaligned
movement. The state of Lebanon shall embody these principles in
all areas and spheres, without exception.
C. Lebanon is a democratic
parliamentary republic founded on respect for public liberties,
especially the freedom of expression and belief, on social
justice, and on equality in rights and duties among all citizens,
without discrimination or preference.
D. The people are the source of
authority. They are sovreign and they shall exercise their
sovreignty through the constitutional institutions.
E. The economic system is a free
system that guarantees individual initiative and private
F. Culturally, socially, and
economically-balanced development is a mainstay of the state's
unity and of the system's stability.
G. Efforts (will be made) to
achieve comprehensive social justice through fiscal, economic, and
H. Lebanon's soil is united and it
belongs to all the Lebanese. Every Lebanese is entitled to live in
and enjoy any part of the country under the supremacy of the law.
The people may not be categorized on the basis of any affiliation
whatsoever and there shall be no fragmentation, no partition, and
no repatriation [of Palestinians in Lebanon].
I. No authority violating the
common co-existance charter shall be legitimate
II. Political Reforms
A. Chamber of Deputies: The
Chamber of Deputies is the legislative authority which exercises
full control over government policy and activities.
1. The Chamber spokesman and his
deputy shall be elected for the duration of the chamber's term.
2. In the first session, two
years after it elects its speaker and deputy speaker, the
chamber my vote only once to withdraw confidence from its
speaker or deputy speaker with a 2/3 majority of its members and
in accordance with a petition submitted by at least 10 deputies.
In case confidence is withdrawn, the chamber shall convene
immediately to fill the vacant post.
3. No urgent bill presented to
the Chamber of Deputies may be issued unless it is included in
the agenda of a public session and read in such a session, and
unless the grace period stipulated by the constitution passes
without a resolution on such a bill with the approval of the
4. The electoral district shall
be the governorate.
5. Until the Chamber of Deputies
passes an election law free of secterian restriction, the
parliamentary seats shall be divided according to the following
a. Equally between Christians
b. Proportionately between the denominations of each sect.
c. Proportionately between the districts.
6. The number of members of the
Chamber of Deputies shall be increased to 108, shared equally
between Christians and Muslims. As for the districts created on
the basis of this document and the districts whose seats became
vacant prior to the proclamation of this document, their seats
shall be filled only once on an emergency basis through
appointment by the national accord government that is planned to
7. With the election of the
first Chamber of Deputies on a national, not secterian, basis, a
senate shall be formed and all the spiritual families shall be
represented in it. The senate powers shall be confined to
B. President of Republic: The
president of republic is the head of the state and a symbol of the
country's unity. He shall contribute to enhancing the constitution
and to preserving Lebanon's independence, unity, and territorial
integrity in accordance with the provisions of the constitution.
He is the supreme commander of the armed forces which are subject
to the power of the cabinet. The president shall exercise the
1. Head the cabinet [meeting]
whenever he wishes, but without voting.
2. Head the Supreme Defense
3. Issues decrees and demand
their publication. He shall also be entitled to ask the cabinet
to reconsider any resolution it makes within 15 days of the date
of depostion of the resolution with the presidential office.
Should the cabinet insist on the adopted resolution, or should
the grace period pass without issuing and returning the decree,
the decree of the resolution shall be valid and must be
4. Promulgate laws in accordance
with the grace period stipulated by the constitution and demand
their publication upon ratification by the Chamber of Deputies.
After notifying the cabinet, the president may also request
reexamination of the laws within the grace periods provided by
the constitution, and in accordance with the articles of the
constitution. In case the laws are not issued or returned before
the end of the grace periods, they shall be valid by law and
they must be published.
5. Refer the bills presented to
him by the Chamber of Deputies.
6. Name the prime
minister-designate in consultation with the Chamber of Deputies
speaker on the basis of binding parliamentary consultation, the
outcome of which the president shall officially familiarize the
7. Issue the decree appointing
the prime minister independently.
8. On agreement with the prime
minister, issue the decree forming the cabinet.
9. Issue decrees accepting the
resignation of the cabinet or of cabinet ministers and decrees
relieving them from their duties.
10. Appoint ambassadors, accept
the accreditation of ambassadors, and award state medals by
11. On agreement with the prime
minister, negotiate on the conclusion and signing of
international treaties which shall become valid only upon
approval by the cabinet. The cabinet shall familiariaze the
Chamber of Deputies with such treaties when the country's
interest and state safety make such familiarization possible. As
for treaties involving conditions concerning state finances,
trade treaties, and other treaties which may not be abrogated
annually, they may not be concluded without Chamber of Deputies'
12. When the need arises,
address messages to the Chamber of Deputies.
13. On agreement with the prime
minister, summon the Chamber of Deputies to hold special
sessions by decree.
14. The president of the
republic is entitled to present to the cabinet any urgent issue
beyond the agenda.
15. On agreement with the prime
minister, call the cabinet to hold a special session whenever he
deems it necessary.
16. Grant special pardon by
17. In the performance of his
duty, the president shall not be liable unless he violates the
constitution or commits high treason.
C. Prime Minister: The prime
minister is the head of the government. He represents it and
speaks in its name. He is responsible for implementing the general
policy drafted by the cabinet. The prime minister shall exercise
the following powers:
1. Head the cabinet.
2. Hold parliamentary
consultations to form the cabinet and co-sign with the president
the decree forming it. The cabinet shall submit its cabinet
statement to the Chamber of Deputies for a vote of confidence
within 30 days [of its formation]. The cabinet may not exercise
its powers before gaining the confidence, after its resignation,
or when it is considered retired, except within the narrow sense
of disposing of affairs.
3. Present the government's
general policy to the Chamber of Deputies.
4. Sign all decrees, except for
decrees naming the prime minister and decrees accepting cabinet
resignation or considering it retired.
5. Sign the decree calling for a
special session and decrees issuing laws and requesting the
reexamination of laws.
6. Summon the cabinet to meet,
draft its agenda, familiarize the president of the republic in
advance with the issues included in the agenda and with the
urgent issues to be discussed, and sign the usual session
7. Observe the activities of the
public departments and institutions, coordinate between the
ministers, and issue general instructions to ensure the smooth
progress of work.
8. Hold working sessions with
the state agencies concerned in the presence of the minister
9. By law, act as the Supreme
Defense Council's deputy chairman.
The executive power shall be
vested in the Cabinet.
The following are among the powers
exercised by it:
1- Set the general policy of the
State in all domains, draws up draft bills and decrees, and
takes the necessary decisions for its implementation.
2. Watch over the implementation
of laws and regulations and supervise the activities of all the
state agencies without exception, including the civilian,
military, and security departments and institutions.
3. The cabinet is the authority
which controls the armed forces.
4. Appoint, dismiss, and accept
the resignation of state employees in accordance with the
5. It has the right to dissolve
the Chamber of Deputies at the request of the president of the
republic if the chamber refuses to meet throughout an ordinary
or a special session lasting no less than one month, even though
it is summoned twice consecutively, or if the chamber sends back
the budget in its entirety with the purpose of paralyzing the
government. This right may not be exercised again for the same
reasons which called for dissolving the chamber in the first
6. When the president of the
republic is present, he heads cabinet sessions. The cabinet
shall meet periodically at special headquarters. The legal
quorum for a cabinet meeting is 2/3 the cabinet members. The
cabinet shall adopt its resolutions by consent. If impossible,
then by vote. The resolutions shall be adopted by a majority of
the members present. As for major issues, they require the
approval of 2/3 the cabinet members. The following shall be
considered major issues: The state of emergency and it
abolition, war and peace, general mobilization, international
agreements and treaties, the state's general budget,
comprehensive and long-term development plans, the appointment
of top-level civil servants or their equivalent, reexamination
of the administrative division, dissolving the Chamber of
Deputies, the election law, the citizenship law, the personal
status laws, and the dismissal of cabinet ministers.
E. Minister: The minister's powers
shall be reinforced in a manner compatible with the government's
general policiy and with the principle of collective
responsibility. A minister shall not be relieved from his position
unless by cabinet decree or unless the Chamber of Deputies
withraws its confidence from him individually.
F. Cabinet Resignation,
Considering Cabinet Retired, and Dismissal of Ministers:
1. The cabinet shall be
considered retired in the following cases:
a. If its chairman resigns.
b. If it loses more than 1/3 of its members as determined by
the decree forming it.
c. If its chairman dies.
d. At the beginning of a president's term.
e. At the beginning of the Chamber of Deputies' term.
f. When the Chamber of Deputies withdraws its confidence from
it on an initiative by the chamber itself and on the basis of
a vote of confidence.
2. A minister shall be relieved
by a decree signed by the president of the republic and the
prime minister, with cabinet approval.
3. When the cabinet resigns or
is considered retired, the Chamber of Deputies shall, by law, be
considered to be convened in a special session until a new
cabinet is formed. A vote-of-confidence session shall follow.
G. Abolition of Political
Secterianism: Abolishing political secterianism is a fundamental
national objective. To achieve it, it is required that efforts be
made in accordance with a phased plan. The Chamber of Deputies
electedon the basis of equal sharing by Christians and Muslims
shall adopt the proper measures to achieve this objective and to
form a national council which is headed by the president of the
republic and which includes, in addition to the prime minister and
the Chamber of Deputies speaker, political, intellectual, and
social notables. The council's task will be to examine and propose
the means capable of abolishing sectarianism, to present them to
the Chamber of Deputies and the cabinet, and to observe
implementation of the phased plan. The following shall be done in
the interim period:
a. Abolish the sectarian
representation base and rely on capability and specialization in
public jobs, the judiciary, the military, security, public, and
joint institutions, and in the independent agencies in
accordance with the dictates of national accord, excluding the
top-level jobs and equivalent jobs which shall be shared equally
by Christians and Muslims without allocating any particular job
to any sect.
b. Abolish the mention of sect
and denomination on the identity card.
III. Other Reforms
A. Administrative Decentralism:
1. The State of Lebanon shall be
a single and united state with a strong central authority.
2. The powers of the governors
and district administrative officers shall be expanded and all
state administartions shall be represented in the administrative
provinces at the highest level possible so as to facilitate
serving the citizens and meeting their needs locally.
3. The administrative division
shall be recognized in a manner that emphasizes national fusion
within the framework of preserving common coexistance and unity
of the soil, people, and institutions.
4. Expanded administrative
decentralization shall be adopted at the level of the smaller
administrative units [ district and smaller units ] through the
election of a council, headed by the district officer, in every
district, to ensure local participation.
5. A comprehensive and unified
development plan capable of developing the provinces
economically and socially shall be adopted and the resources of
the municipalities, unified municipalities, and municipal unions
shall be reinforced with the necessary financial resources.
 To guarantee that all
officials and citizens are subject to the supremacy of the law and
to insure harmony between the action of the legislative and
executive authorities on the one hand, and the givens of common
coexistance and the basic rights of the Lebanese as stipulated in
the constitution on the other hand:
1. The higher council which is
stipulated by the constitution and whose task it is to try
presidents and ministers shall be formed. A special law on the
rules of trial before this council shall be promulgated.
2. A constitutional council
shall be created to interpret the constitution, to observe the
constitutionality of the laws, and to settle disputes and
contests emanating from presidential and parliamentary
3. The following authorities
shall be entitled to revise the constitutional council in
matters pertaining to interpreting the constitution and
observing the constitutionality of the laws:
a. The president of the
b. The Chamber of Deputies speaker.
c. The prime minister.
d. A certain percentage of members of the Chamber of Deputies.
 To ensure the principle of
harmony between religion and state, the heads of the Lebanese
sects may revise the constitutional council in matters pertaining
1. Personal status affairs.
2. Freedom of religion and the practice of religious rites.
3. Freedom of religious education.
. To ensure the judiciary's
independence, a certain number of the the Higher Judiciary Council
shall be elected by the judiciary body.
D. Parliamentary Election Law:
Parliamentary elections shall be held in accordance with a new law
on the basis of provinces and in the light of rules that guarantee
common coexistance between the Lebanese, and that ensure the sound
and efficient political representation of all the people's
factions and generations. This shall be done after reviewing the
administrative division within the context of unity of the people,
the land, and the institutions.
E. Creation of a socioeconomic
council for development: A socioeconomic council shall be created
to insure that representatives of the various sectors participate
in drafting the state's socioeconomic policy and providing advice
1. Education shall be provided
to all and shall be made obligatory for the elementary stage at
2. The freedom of education
shall be emphasized in accordance with general laws and
3. Private education shall be
protected and state control over private schools and textbooks
shall be strengthened.
4. Official, vocational, and
technological education shall be reformed, strengthened, and
developed in a manner that meets the country's development and
reconstruction needs. The conditions of the Lebanese University
shall be reformed and aid shall be provided to the university,
especially to its technical colleges.
5. The curricula shall be
reviewed and developed in a manner that strengthens national
belonging, fusion, spiritual and cultural openness, and that
unifies textbooks on the subjects of history and national
G. Information: All the
information media shall be reorganized under the canopy of the law
and within the framework of responsible liberties that serve the
cautious tendencies and the objective of ending the state of war.
Second, spreading the
sovereignty of the State of Lebanon over all Lebanese territories:
Considering that all Lebanese
factions have agreed to the establishment of a strong state
founded on the basis of national accord, the national accord
government shall draft a detailed one-year plan whose objective is
to spread the sovereignty of the State of Lebanon over all
Lebanese territories gradually with the state's own forces. The
broad lines of the plan shall be as follows:
A. Disbanding of all Lebanese and
non-Lebanese militias shall be announced. The militias' weapons
shall be delivered to the State of Lebanon within a period of 6
months, beginning with the approval of the national accord
charter. The president of the republic shall be elected. A
national accord cabinet shall be formed, and the political reforms
shall be approved constitutionally.
B. The internal security forces
shall be strengthened through:
1. Opening the door of
voluntarism to all the Lebanese without exception, beginning the
training of volunteers centrally, distributing the volunteers to
the units in the governorates, and subjecting them to organized
periodic training courses.
2. Strengthening the security
agency to insure control over the entry and departure of
individuals into and out of the country by land, air, and sea.
C. Strengthening the armed forces:
1. The fundamental task of the
armed forces is to defend the homeland, and if necessary,
protect public order when the danger exceeds the capability of
the internal security forces to deal with such a danger on their
2. The armed forces shall be
used to support the internal security forces in preserving
security under conditions determined by the cabinet.
3. The armed forces shall be
unified, prepared, and trained in order that they may be able to
shoulder their national responsibilities in confronting Israeli
4. When the internal security
forces become ready to assume their security tasks, the armed
forces shall return to their barracks.
5. The armed forces intelligence
shall be reorganized to serve military objectives exclusively.
D. The problem of the Lebanese
evacuees shall be solved fundamentally, and the right of every
Lebanese evicted since 1975 to return to the place from which he
was evicted shall be established. Legistlation to guarantee this
right and to insure the means of reconstruction shall be issued.
Considering that the objective of the State of Lebanon is to
spread its authority over all the Lebanese territories through its
own forces, represented primarily by the internal security forces,
and in view of the fraternal relations binding Syria to Lebanon,
the Syrian forces shall thankfully assist the forces of the
legitimate Lebanese government to spread the authority of the
State of Lebanon within a set period of no more than 2 years,
beginning with ratification of the national accord charter,
election of the president of the republic, formation of the
national accord cabinet, and approval of the political reforms
constitutionally. At the end of this period, the two governments
-- the Syrian Government and the Lebanese National Accord
Government -- shall decide to redeploy the Syrian forces in
Al-Biq'a area from Dahr al-Baydar to the Hammana-al-Mudayrij-'Ayn
Darah line, and if necessary, at other points to be determined by
a joint Lebanese-Syrian military committee. An agreement shall
also be concluded by the two governments to determine the strength
and duration of the presence of Syrian forces in the
above-mentioned area and to define these forces' relationship with
the Lebanese state authorities where the forces exist. The Arab
Tripartite Committee is prepared to assist the two states, if they
so wish, to develop this agreement.
Third, liberating Lebanon from
the Israeli occupation:
Regaining state authority over the
territories extending to the internationally-recognized Lebanese
borders requires the following:
A. Efforts to implement resolution
425 and the other UN Security Council resolutions calling for
fully eliminating the Israeli occupation.
B. Adherence to the truce
agreement concluded on 23 March 1949.
C. Taking all the steps necessary
to liberate all Lebanese territories from the Israeli occupation,
to spread state sovereignty over all the territories, and to
deploy the Lebanese army in the border area adjacent to Israel;
and making efforts to reinforce the presence of the UN forces in
South Lebanon to insure the Israeli withdawl and to provide the
opportunity for the return of security and stability to the border
Lebanon, with its Arab identity,
is tied to all the Arab countries by true fraternal relations.
Between Lebanon and Syria there is a special relationship that
derives its strength from the roots of blood relationships,
history, and joint fraternal interests. This is the concept on
which the two countries' coordination and cooperation is founded,
and which will be embodied by the agreements between the two
countries in all areas, in a manner that accomplishes the two
fraternal countries' interests within the framework of the
sovereignty and independence of each of them. Therefore, and
because strengthening the bases of security creates the climate
needed to develop these bonds, Lebanon should not be allowed to
constitute a source of threat to Syria's security, and Syria
should not be allowed to constitute a source of threat to
Lebanon's security under any circumstances. Consequently, Lebanon
should not allow itself to become a pathway or a base for any
force, state, or organization seeking to undermine its security or
Syria's security. Syria, which is eager for Lebanon's security,
independence, and unity and for harmony among its citizens, should
not permit any act that poses a threat to Lebanon's security,
independence, and sovereignty.