An open door to the Arab world


Country briefing






Special topics


Arts and culture




History of Morocco



Morocco timeline 
A chronology of key events (BBC)

Key dates since the arrival of Islam - detailed chronology from the Moroccan government website

Chronology of Morocco during the last 50,000 years! [Focus Multimedia]

Basic histories

History of Morocco - Wikipedia

Foreign invaders from the Phoenicians and Romans to the end of the 16th Century (ArabNet)

The Moroccan Berber dynasties 
Almoravids and Almohads (muslimheritage.com)

European domination  
Portuguese, Spanish and French imperialism (ArabNet)

From the Second World War to self-government (ArabNet)

Morocco: From Empire to Independence

Struggle for control of the Sahara  
including the Green March, 1976 (ArabNet)

Historical documents

Documents are from Historical Text Archive except where indicated

Treaty of Peace between the United States and Morocco
Meknes, 1836

Moroccan pirates
Letter threatening reprisals by the French - 1855 (in French)

Limits of Melilla
Convention between Morocco and Spain - Tetuan, 1859 

Loan to be raised in London
Convention between Britain and Morocco - Tangier, 1861

Commercial Treaty
Between Morocco and Spain - 1861

By the French consulate-general - Tangier, 1862

Cape Spartel Lighthouse
Convention between the United States, Austria, Belgium, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden and Norway and Morocco - 1867

One Day in Morocco
A traveller's account by Edmondo de Amicis, c1870 [Internet Modern History Sourcebook]

British Consular Jurisdiction in Morocco
British Order in Council - 1875

Protection in Morocco
Convention between the United States, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden and Norway and Morocco - 1880

Declaration between the United Kingdom and France
Regarding Egypt and Morocco, with the secret articles signed at the same time - London, 1904 

Declaration between France and Spain
Regarding the integrity of Morocco - Paris, 1904

Algeciras Conference
1906 (in French)

Agreement between Germany and France
Regarding Morocco - 1909

Exchange of notes
Between France and Morocco - 1909

Morocco in 1830  - "Marocco from Observations in 1830" with inset map of "City of Marocco (Marraksh Blad Kibira)" [Marrakech] from the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, Volume 1, 1832 to accompany "Geographical Notice of the Empire of Marocco. By Lieutenant Washington, R.N." [Texas University library]

Historical lists of consuls to Morocco:

British consuls  
Swedish consuls, 1800-1849
French consuls
Spanish consuls, 1799-1912
Swedish-Norwegian consuls
US consuls


In the Moroccan history section


In the Morocco section



A Traveller's History of North Africa
Barnaby Rogerson. Paperback, 2000. ISBN 1566563518. Purchase from amazon.com or amazon.co.uk

Morocco since 1830: A History 
by C. R. Pennell. Paperback, 2001. ISBN 0814766773. Purchase from amazon.com or amazon.co.uk

Morocco: The Islamist Awakening and Other Challenges 
by Marvine Howe. Hardcover, 2005. ISBN 0195169638. Purchase from amazon.com or amazon.co.uk

Rome in Africa 
by Susan Raven. Paperback, 1993. ISBN 0415081505. Purchase from amazon.com or amazon.co.uk

The Berbers 
by Michael Brett. Paperback, 1997. ISBN 0631207678. Purchase from amazon.com or amazon.co.uk

The Ancient Mediterranean 
by Michael Grant. Paperback, 1988. ISBN 0452010373. Purchase from amazon.com or amazon.co.uk





View statistics


Last revised on 03 August, 2015